Getting Ready for PowerShell 7.1 (GA)

This November, PowerShell 7.1 (GA) will become available, as well as PowerShell 7.2 Preview version. And it will come with some interesting features.
If you want more information on these upcoming releases, check out the following two videos:

* Taking your automation to the next level with PowerShell 7

* PowerShell Unplugged – Challenge Edition

Both videos will give you enough information about the history and what’s coming in PowerShell 7.1.
I guarantee that you won’t be disappointed.

But wait! There’s more. Don’t forget to check out any of the existing modules found in the PowerShell Gallery, such as:

* Microsoft.PowerShell.SecretManagement and Microsoft.PowerShell.SecretStore

* Microsoft.PowerShell.GraphicalTools and Microsoft.PowerShell.ConsoleGuiTools

* Microsoft.PowerShell.UnixCompleters

Remember, PowerShell has become the cross-platform automation tool of choice for Windows, Linux, and macOS.
It’s never too late to get on the PowerShell bandwagon!

Installing PowerShell 7 in Ubuntu 20.04

Everyone knows, that sometime soon, Microsoft will support the PowerShell installation in Ubuntu 20.04. But, in the meantime, there’s another way. And, this also applies to WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux) Ubuntu 20.04.

It is the way!

First, you must follow the instructions for installing .NET Core for Ubuntu 20.04 from the Microsoft Documentation: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/core/install/linux-ubuntu#2004-

Basically, the following commands will install both the .NET Core SDK and the Runtime components:

## Install the SDK

wget https://packages.microsoft.com/config/ubuntu/20.04/packages-microsoft-prod.deb -O packages-microsoft-prod.deb
sudo dpkg -i packages-microsoft-prod.deb

sudo apt-get update; \
sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https && \
sudo apt-get update && \
sudo apt-get install -y dotnet-sdk-3.1

## Install Runtime

sudo apt-get update; \
sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https && \
sudo apt-get update && \
sudo apt-get install -y aspnetcore-runtime-3.1

sudo apt-get install -y dotnet-runtime-3.1

So, after the .NET Core gets installed, then proceed to install the “.NET Global” tool:

## - Install .NET Interactive:
dotnet tool install --global Microsoft.dotnet-interactive

## Install PowerShell Global:
dotnet tool install --global PowerShell

Almost there! There’s one more step we need to do. If you try executing PowerShell, the system can’t find the program.

To resolve the issue of PowerShell not found, we need to add the path to the .NET Global Tools components so that PowerShell can start.

In my case, I open my VIM editor using “sudo” so I can modify the “~/.bashrc” file.

## Add .NET Tools path in Bashrc
$ sudo vim ~/.bashrc
## - Add path to .NET Tools:
export PATH=$PATH:~/.dotnet/tools
:wq

## - Refresh session after updating bashrc:
$ source ~/.bashrc

At this point, now you can start using PowerShell 7 in Ubuntu 20.04.

But, how to update PowerShell?

Simple! The following two commands will update .NET Tools when the update becomes available:

dotnet tool update -g --add-source "https://dotnet.myget.org/F/dotnet-try/api/v3/index.json" Microsoft.dotnet-interactive
dotnet tool update -g powershell

And, the following command will confirm the latest version of both the .NET Tools installed in the system:

dotnet tool list --global

Now, go ahead and have fun with PowerShell.

Happy PowerShelling!!

Available in the Microsoft Store – PowerShell Preview

Yes! If you haven’t noticed by now, PowerShell Preview is available for download from the Microsoft Store.
Just do a search for “PowerShell

It just takes less than a minute to install.

One thing you’ll miss from installing Powershell Preview using the MSI installation! That is, setting the additional options.

After the installation from the Microsoft Store, the PowerShell Preview application settings can be found under the Windows 10 Settings “Apps & features” section.

Then, click on the “Advanced options” to see additional information or make any changes to the application.

Now, the next time there’s an update to the PowerShell Preview, Windows 10 will take care of it automatically.

Happy PowerShelling!

WSL 2 – PowerShell Update-Help cmdlet is not working

Just recently I discovered, when executing the Update-Help cmdlet in WSL 2, that it doesn’t do anything.

Behavior: Run with no progress bar and no error messages at the end of the process. 

I have reported in the PowerShell Github repository and it will be addressed to the proper product group. This is on Windows 10 Version 2004, including Windows 10 Insider edition.

There are two workarounds to this issue:

Workaround #1

The workaround is shown below, thanks to Aditya Patwardhan (Microsoft PowerShell Developer) who provide the hint.

There are two Linux Bash environment variables that need to be updated: LANG and LC_ALL.

Check the current values using the echo command and, in my case, it shows:

## Current values:
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LANG
C.UTF-8
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LC_ALL
-EMPTY-
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$

Use the following “export” commands to change their values to be “en_US.UTF-8“:

(base) maxt@sapien01:~$
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ export LC_ALL='en_US.UTF-8'
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ export LANG='en_US.UTF-8'
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LC_ALL
en_US.UTF-8
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LANG
en_US.UTF-8
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$

This will fix the issue temporarily during your WSL session, and the Update-Help will work properly.

For now, it may be needed to add these “export …” lines to the “~/.bashrc” file until the fix is available.

Workaround #2

Simply use the “Update-Help” specifying the UIculture:

Update-Help -uiculture en-us

That’s it!!

Keep PowerShelling!

Creating the PowerShell User Profile in Linux

In WSL, as on any Linux distribution, there’s no PowerShell User Profile file(“Microsoft.PowerShell_Profile.ps1“). So, it needs to be created manually.

Creating the profile folder

This profile is stored in the user home configuration folder “~/.config/powershell” folder.

But, the “powershell” folder doesn’t exist, it needs to be created in the configuration folder:

From the bash prompt, follow these steps:

1. Make sure you are in the user home folder:

pwd
cd /home/yourUserFolder

2. Verify the PowerShell folder doesn’t exist:

ls ~/.config

3. Change to the configuration folder:

cd ~/.config

3. Create the “powershell” folder, and assign permissions:

cd ~/.config
mkdir powershell
chmod 755
ll

Creating Microsoft.PowerShell_profile file

1. Using your Linux editor, create the Microsoft.PowerShell_Profile.ps1 file, and add code to the file: (Below using “vim” editor)

sudo vim /home/yourUserFolder/.config/powershell/Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1
-> Write-Host "Welcome to PowerShell in Linux" -foreground 'Yellow';
-> Import-Module Microsoft.PowerShell.UnixCompleters
-> Import-UnixCompleters
-> Write-Host "UnixCompleters is loaded!" -foreground 'Yellow';

5. When done, save changes and exit “vim’ editor by typing:

:wq

Testing the PowerShell Profile

Open PowerShell and the “Welcome to PowerShell in Linux” with any other text will be displayed. At the same time, anything else in the profile will be executed.

Now, you can add more commands to the file when needed.

Keep on PowerShelling!

Streamlining SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) In PowerShell 7 (Revised)

It’s been over two years since I touch this topic, so here’s an updated post about using SQL Server Management Object (SMO) on the latest PowerShell Version 7.

Here’s 411 on what’s out there!

For the most part, nowadays you can use SMO to  connect:

1. Windows to Linux.
2. Linux to Windows.
3. Windows to Linux Containers.
4. Linux to Linux Containers.
5. Windows to Windows Containers.
6. WSL to Linux Containers or Windows.

And, of course, will include cloud technologies.

Now, we have to extend our skills thanks to Docker Container.

*Note: Any connection issues connecting from Linux to Windows, can be solved by creating the inbound rule for Linux in Windows Firewall.

Ways to use SMO

There are two ways you could use SMO in PowerShell 7 (cross-platform):

1. Installing the SMO NuGet packages, two packages are requiered:
a. Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects Version 150.18208.0 (as of 03/23/2020)
b. Microsoft.Data.SqlClient Version 1.1.1 (recommended)

2. Installing the PowerShell Module: SqlServer Version 21.1.18221 (as of 03/23/2020)

Keep in mind, once the packages and/or modules are installed, you need to update them manually.

Working with SMO NuGet Packages

To install the Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects package. You first need to verify that Nuget Package Management is registered in PowerShell 7. Execute the following code will do the task of registration:

function Verify-NugetRegistered
{
[CmdletBinding()]
Param ()
# Microsoft provided code: Test Auto sAVCE
# Register NuGet package source, if needed
# The package source may not be available on some systems (e.g. Linux/Windows)
if (-not (Get-PackageSource | Where-Object{ $_.Name -eq 'Nuget' }))
{
Register-PackageSource -Name Nuget -ProviderName NuGet -Location https://www.nuget.org/api/v2
}
else
{
Write-Host "NuGet Already Exist! No Need to install." -ForegroundColor Yellow;
};
}; Verify-NugetRegistered;

Now, here’s the tricky part. There’s a known issue when executing the Install-Package cmdlet which will fail to install the package.

The workaround is to download the Nuget.exe CLI and place the executable in the following folder: “C:\Program Files\PackageManagement\NuGet\Packages.”

This is the PowerShell default path for storing Packages, and it may not exist in the beginning. So you may need to manually create the folders.

To install the SMO packages needed, execute the following command in PowerShell 7 prompt as an Admin:

cd 'C:\Program Files\PackageManagement\NuGet\Packages\'
./nuget install Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects -version 150.18208.0
Pause
./nuget install Microsoft.Data.SqlClient -version 1.1.1
Pause

Notice, I included the versions of the packages as of 3/23/2020. These SMO packages will support SQL Server 2019 or older, but keeping in mind the older the SQL Server version the latest features will not apply.

Also, these packages doesn’t contain any PowerShell cmdlets, they are meant for developing solution from scratch. For example, below I’m creating an SMO script to connect to a SQL Server providing my SQL authentication, query to get the SQL Server engine version, and manipulate the results from the script.

## - PowerShell 7 loading .NET Core netstandard 2.0 library SMO dll's:
$smopath = Join-Path ((Get-Package Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects).Source `
| Split-Path) (Join-Path lib netstandard2.0);

Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.Smo.dll);
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.ConnectionInfo.dll);
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.SmoExtended.dll);
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Sdk.Sfc.dll);

## - Prepare login credentials:
$SQLServerInstanceName = 'sapien01,1449';
$SQLUserName = 'sa'; $SqlPwd = '$SqlPwd01!';

## - Prepare connection to SQL Server:
$SQLSrvConn = `
new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.SqlConnectionInfo($SQLServerInstanceName, $SQLUserName, $SqlPwd);
$SQLSrvObj = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($SQLSrvConn);

## - Sample T-SQL Queries:
$SqlQuery = 'Select @@Version as FullVersion';

## - Execute T-SQL Query:
[array]$result = $SQLSrvObj.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($SqlQuery);
$GetVersion = $result.tables.Rows;
$GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0];

## - SMO Get SQL Server Info:
$SQLSrvObj.Information `
| Select-Object parent, platform, `
@{ label = 'FullVersion'; Expression = { $GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0]; } }, `
OSVersion, Edition, version, HostPlatform, HostDistribution `
| Format-List;

The best thing! This Package is supported cross-platform so you can execute the script on any OS.

The beauty of coding with SMO is that everything is documented. Just check the Microsoft Documentation “SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) Programming Guide“.

Working with SqlServer Module

Now, using the SQL Server Module in PowerShell 7 is makes it a bit simple to install. And, it’s supported cross-platform.

Just execute the following command as an Admin:

Install-Module -Name SqlServer -AllowClobber

The latest version contains a total of 66 commands you can use to manage your SQL Server engine.

Now, besides having all of these commands available, in the future, you may have the need to create custom functions.

Here’s the variation of the previous SMO script sample:

## - Import the SqlServer module which it loads all needed SMO assemblies:
Import-Module SqlServer

## - Prepare login credentials:
$SQLServerInstanceName = 'sapien01,1449';
$SQLUserName = 'sa'; $SqlPwd = '$SqlPwd01!';

## - Prepare connection to SQL Server:
$SQLSrvConn = `
new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.SqlConnectionInfo($SQLServerInstanceName, $SQLUserName, $SqlPwd);
$SQLSrvObj = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($SQLSrvConn);

## - Sample T-SQL Queries:
$SqlQuery = 'Select @@Version as FullVersion';

## - Execute T-SQL Query:
[array]$result = $SQLSrvObj.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($SqlQuery);
$GetVersion = $result.tables.Rows;
$GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0];

## - SMO Get SQL Server Info:
$SQLSrvObj.Information `
| Select-Object parent, platform, `
@{ label = 'FullVersion'; Expression = { $GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0]; } }, `
OSVersion, Edition, version, HostPlatform, HostDistribution `
| Format-List;

The differences is quite simple. All SMO assemblies are previously loaded when you import the SqlServer module. So, you don’t have to worry about including the assemblies in the code. Make sure to check all of the commands available that can help you manage the SQL Server.

Additional Tools Available

Now, don’t forget to check other SQL Server community tools that are available, such as:
1. DBATools – SQL SMO PowerShell.
2. MSSql-Scripter – Python-based tool.
3. Mssql-cli – Python-based tool.

And, don’t forget to check out .NET Interactive which brings Jupyter Notebook with PowerShell kernel.

If you want to try .NET Notebook, I suggest to first install Anaconda (Python 3.7) which makes it simple to use in Windows.

If you want to experiment with .NET Notebook without installing anything in your system, then try MyBinder. This is a web-based .NET Notebook that’s run from a container.

Unfortunately, in this scenario, only the PowerShell 7 core modules are available. But at least you will be able to learn the essentials of .NET Notebook.

Go ahead and start using this Amazing technology!

PowerShell 7 GA is Here!

Finally is here, PowerShell 7 GA (Generally Available) is available for download for Windows, Linux, and macOS. Go and get it!

Installation

I suggest to manually uninstall all previous PowerShell versions and remove all existing folders that will be left behind under the “C:\Program Files\PowerShell” folder. This will guarantee a clean installation of PowerShell 7 GA.

This version will replace any previous GA version of PowerShell. In other words, if you already had PowerShell v6.2.4 installed, it will be replaced with PowerShell v7.0. This is by-designed!

You can find more information about PowerShell 7 GA in the following links:

Update your PowerShell Notebook

Also, check out .NET Interactive/PowerShell Notebook, as it has been updated to support the PowerShell 7 Kernel.

If you have previously installed .NET Interactive, to get the latest PowerShell Kernel, run the following command:

dotnet tool update -g --add-source "https://dotnet.myget.org/F/dotnet-try/api/v3/index.json" Microsoft.dotnet-interactive

For more information here, .NET Interactive/PowerShell Notebook.

Wait, there’s more!

Things are getting better! Check out the preview of the ConsoleGuiTools module for PowerShell 7 but, for now, only available for Linux and macOS.

It’s never too late to learn PowerShell!

Anaconda and PowerShell working together!

Yes! To my surprise, when I completed installing the latest update of Anaconda (Anaconda3 2019.10 (64bit) v4.8.1), I realized they have included the following menu item: “Anaconda PowerShell Prompt (Anaconda3)“. Apparently, this menu item has been added for some time.

So, we can take advantage of this shortcut, especially when we can use this console prompt for working with “PowerShell Notebook.” Please, check out Rob Sewell blog post on the recent update .NET Notebook Preview 2 post about “New .NET Notebooks are here – PowerShell 7 notebooks are here.“.

But, Wait! Let’s take this a little further and get you ready to do some fun.

What’s the main advantage?

The “Anaconda PowerShell Prompt” shortcut is already set to activate Anaconda to be used with Windows PowerShell. There’s no need to do a manual activation by opening a DOS command shell and executing:

c:\> conda activate

Trying to use Python without activating Anaconda, it will give you a message.

The activation will allow you to use Python within Windows PowerShell. Or, just use the shortcut “Anaconda PowerShell Prompt.”

As you probably will notice, this menu item only open Windows PowerShell. So, what about PowerShell Core?

This is probably because of PowerShell Core has multiple versions: PowerShell 6.2.4 (GA) and PowerShell 7 Preview (RC2), both supported by Microsoft.

Would you like to create the Anaconda Pwsh7 Prompt shortcut?

Yes! We can create our own PowerShell Core shortcut. And, here’s how to create the shortcut for Anaconda PowerShell 7 Preview.

First, I will make another copy of the original shortcut and label it “Anaconda Pwsh7-Preview Prompt (Anaconda3)“.

Here’s the original path use the Windows PowerShell shortcut:

%windir%\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -NoExit -Command "& 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3\shell\condabin\conda-hook.ps1' ; conda activate 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3' "

And, here’s my shortcut modification to use PowerShell 7 Preview:

%ProgramFiles%\PowerShell\7-preview\pwsh.exe -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -NoExit -Command "& 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3\shell\condabin\conda-hook.ps1' ; conda activate 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3' "

Keep in mind, you will need administrator privileges to create this shortcut in the ProgramData Anaconda menu.

After making all the necessary changes to the new shortcut, we got both Window PowerShell and PowerShell 7 Preview working with Anaconda.

Now go ahead and expand your scripting knowledge!

My Truth with WSL 2 in Windows 10

I’ve seen many blog posts looking for specific information on setting up WSL 2 in Windows 10 and especially, on a virtual machine. But, I always end up a little short and figuring out by myself through trial-and-error.

Microsoft WSL 2 Installation documentation page is helpful for most part. But was meant for a physical installation. ()

Let me shared what I found and hope it serves you well.

My Experience

First, I love WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux)! It’s a great addition to Windows 10, and everyone should learn how to use it.

To get started, follow the instructions on how to get your WSL 1 Linux Distro installed. And, begin with installing Ubuntu 18.04.

Now, get Docker Desktop (), which can be installed in Windows 10 RTM Build 18363 with WSL 1. For the most part, you can start working with docker containers.

To use WSL 2 with Docker Tech Preview, you need Windows 10 Insider build 18917 (or higher). Execute the following command in either DOS or PowerShell console:

wsl -l -v

If it doesn’t work, then it means you still using WSL 1, and it can’t be set to WSL 2. This might be due to the OS is not a Windows Insider version. In WSL 1, the version ‘-v’ parameter is only available for Windows Insider OS.

Now, If it works, then you’ll get the following response:

prompt, use the following command to change from WSL 1 to WSL 2:

wsl --set-default-version Ubuntu-18.04 2

wsl -l -v

if you still can’t set the WSL distro to version 2, it means you’re not using Windows Insider build.

WSL 2 in Virtual Machine

You need to build a virtual machine with the latest Windows 10 Insider build. If you have tried the previous instructions and didn’t work, then to fix the issue run the PowerShell cmdlet on the Hyper-V host (outside the VM):

Set-VMProcessor -VMName [HyperV-VMName] -ExposeVirtualizationExtensions $true

You can use the Get-VMProcessor cmdlet to verify the changes made to the property “ExposeVirtualizationExtensions.” In this case, should show the value change to “True” as shown below:

Get-VMProcessor -VMName [HyperV-VMName] | Format-List

Make sure the virtual machine is restart after making the changes.

What about setting up WSL 2 on an Azure virtual machine? WSL 2 can’t be set up in an Azure virtual machine. You don’t have access to the Azure parent Hyper-V host to use the Set-VMProcessor cmdlet.

Although the Set-VMProcessor cmdlet is not mentioned in the main WSL 2 installation page, you’ll find it hidden in the WSL 2 FAQ page ().

Remember, this cmdlet is very important if you want to set up WSL 2 on a virtual machine in your physical Hyper-V Host.

The Good Stuff – Docker Desktop WSL 2 Tech Preview

First, make sure all of the above settings are in place. This means that you were able to set WSL 2 as the “Default Version” on your favorite Linux Distro.

Open your favorite console, PowerShell, then verify WSL 2 is set by executing the following command:

wsl -l -v

Then, follow the instructions to install the Docker WSL 2 Tech Preview – “Docker Desktop WSL 2 backend“:

At the time of this post, the download Docker Desktop Edge version should be 2.1.7.0.

Note: If you’re on version 2.1.6.0, upgrading to 2.1.7.0, will fail to start. Ignore it! Then, proceed to “Install Update” to complete installation and reboot.

 

Configure Docker for WSL 2

Although Docker is running in the background, you still need to complete configuring Docker to work in WSL 2.

Continue to follow the instruction from the “Docker Desktop WSL 2 backend – Install” section, and you’re done.

Failure to properly configure Docker to WSL 2, you’ll get the following error:

Now, you can start building and working with Docker containers in WSL 2.

Have fun!

Updating ActiveDirectory module in Windows 10

Do you want to use “ActiveDirectory” module in PowerShell 7 RC.1 in Windows 10? For those who haven’t notice yet, seem like one of the recent updates to Windows 10 RTM Build 1909 will includes the latest version of this module.

“ActiveDirectory” module version 1.0.0.0 will not work in PowerShell 7 RC.1. It will give the following error during the import module process:

ActiveDirectory module imports, but the PSDrive AD: is not created.
Set-Location: Cannot find drive. A drive with the name ‘AD’ does not exist.

To correct the issue, you will need to update this module to version 1.0.1.0.

How to install the updated version?

First, make sure you have installed all of the latest Windows updates. Previous ActiveDirectory module will be on version 1.0.0.0.

To install, look in the “App or remove programs | Optional Features” then look under “Add a feature” for the “RSAT: Active Directory Domain Services and Lightweight Directory Services Tools.

It will replace the previous version with the newer one and will work with PowerShell 7 RC.1.

Remember

To use this module the system need to be a member of a domain, or you’ll get the following error message:

WARNING: Error initializing default drive: ‘Unable to find a default server with Active Directory Web Services
running.’.”

Also, it’s only available for Windows 10 RTM Build 1909, Windows 10 Insider Edition, and Windows Server 2019.