Useful PowerShell Azure Connect CLI Options with Az Module Version 1.0

Recently, Microsoft Azure team release the new version of the AzureRM Module can be install in both Windows PowerShell and PowerShell Core. Now, with the new version renamed from AzureRM to ‘Az‘, Microsoft is encouraging everyone to download and start using this refreshed module moving forward. Just make sure to keep reporting any issues on this module.

Don’t forget to check out the recent blog about the Azure PowerShell ‘Az’ Module version 1.0.

One of the most important fix was the issue experiencing with the TokenCache Initialization when using the cmdlet Import-AzContext. This issue was causing many DevOps to go back and use older version of the AzureRM module to get their script to work again.

The “TokenCache initialization” issue was reported in Github for some time, and finally it has been fixed.

Now, let’s take a look on how to connect to Azure.

Azure Connection CLI options

The following cmdlets can assist you with Azure connectivity:

  • Connect-AzAccount
  • Save-AzContext
  • Import-AzContext
  • Enable-AzContextAutoSave
  • Disable- AzContextAutoSave

All of these cmdlets belongs to the “Az.Account” module which is included in the Az Module. Here’s where you can use find different ways to connect to Azure.

Below is the full list of all Az modules installed from the PowerShell Gallery:

PS [118] > Get-Module -ListAvailable Az.* | Select Name, Version

Name Version
---- -------
Az.Accounts 1.0.0
Az.Aks 1.0.0
Az.AnalysisServices 1.0.0
Az.ApiManagement 1.0.0
Az.ApplicationInsights 1.0.0
Az.Automation 1.0.0
Az.Batch 1.0.0
Az.Billing 1.0.0
Az.Cdn 1.0.0
Az.CognitiveServices 1.0.0
Az.Compute 1.0.0
Az.ContainerInstance 1.0.0
Az.ContainerRegistry 1.0.0
Az.DataFactory 1.0.0
Az.DataLakeAnalytics 1.0.0
Az.DataLakeStore 1.0.0
Az.DevTestLabs 1.0.0
Az.Dns 1.0.0
Az.EventGrid 1.0.0
Az.EventHub 1.0.0
Az.HDInsight 1.0.0
Az.IotHub 1.0.0
Az.KeyVault 1.0.0
Az.LogicApp 1.0.0
Az.MachineLearning 1.0.0
Az.MarketplaceOrdering 1.0.0
Az.Media 1.0.0
Az.Monitor 1.0.0
Az.Network 1.0.0
Az.NotificationHubs 1.0.0
Az.OperationalInsights 1.0.0
Az.PolicyInsights 1.0.0
Az.PowerBIEmbedded 1.0.0
Az.RecoveryServices 1.0.0
Az.RedisCache 1.0.0
Az.Relay 1.0.0
Az.Resources 1.0.0
Az.ServiceBus 1.0.0
Az.ServiceFabric 1.0.0
Az.SignalR 1.0.0
Az.Sql 1.0.0
Az.Storage 1.0.0
Az.StreamAnalytics 1.0.0
Az.TrafficManager 1.0.0
Az.Websites 1.0.0

PS [169] >

There’s a total of 45 ‘Az‘ modules are installed in your system.

Simple Connection

First time connecting to your Azure subscription, you’ll use the “Connect-AzAccount” cmdlet. This cmdlet will asked you to open a browser, then copy/paste a URL and a code that will authorized your device to connect to azure.

So, after the device has been authorized, you can start start working with Azure commands from any of the PowerShell Consoles.

Now, using this cmdlet will create the “.Azure” folder under the user profile directory containing the following files:

c:\Users\username\.Azure
AzInstallationChecks.json
AzurePSDataCollectionProfile.json
AzureRmContext.json
AzureRmContextSettings.json
TokenCache.dat

But, using the Connect-AzAccount cmdlet, the connection only last while your PowerShell session is active. So, as soon as you close the console, and you’ll have to repeat the whole process to connect to Azure again.

Reusing Azure Authentication

We can reuse Azure Authentication in order to avoid the steps of re-opening the browser. Using the following cmdlets: Save-AzContext and Import-AzContext. These two cmdlets are very useful, as the Import-AzContext loads Azure authentication information from a JSON previously saved when using the Save-AzContext cmdlet.

So, as soon as initially set the connection with the Connect-AzAccount and setup all the necessary configuration (resource groups, storage accounts, Availability Sets…), proceed to use the Save-AzContext to save the Azure Authentication information to a folder location of your choosing.

Then, after exiting your PowerShell session, in order to reconnect again, just use the Import-AzContext cmdlet. I’m sure this one of the way many Azure DevOps are using the Import-AzContext to automate script in PowerShell.

Just make sure to occasionally refresh the file as you’ll be making changes the Azure account(s) by adding/removing resources.

Staying Connected to Azure Account

Now, this has been available for awhile using the cmdlets: Enable-AzContextAutoSave, and Disable-AzContextAutoSave. So, if you want to stay connected to your Azure Account, every time you close and reopen a PowerShell Console, you can start working with Azure cmdlets without any delays.

And, because you probably have been working with the Azure modules for some time, just execute the Enable-AzContextAutoSave cmdlet.

That’s it!

Now, you can close and re-open PowerShell Console and immediately start working with Azure.  This will make you feel like you are using the Cloud Shell on your desktop.

Just remember, in order to disable this functionality, just run the Disable-AzContextAutoSave cmdlet and exit the PowerShell Console.

Summary

As you can see, there are many ways to get connected from any system cross-platform to your Azure Account(s) to suit your need. This will work from anywhere from any system!

Just go ahead, experiment and find your own way to work proactive with Azure.

Custom PowerShell function to remove Azure Module

As you probably know by now, “Azure RM” modules has been renamed to “Az” Module. Microsoft want you to start using this module moving forward. Currently, this new release is on version 0.5.0, and you’ll need to remove the any previous module(s) installed. Information about Azure PowerShell can be found on the following link.

Now, there’s always been a tedious task when manually removing module dependencies, and there’s no exception with the “Az” module.  So, we can all take advantage to PowerShell and create a script to work around this limitation.

And, below is a few options.

My Custom Function

I have realized that sometimes I got duplicate modules installed with different versions installed, and this can create some confusion. My solution was to create a custom PowerShell function “Remove-AzureModule” to remove all existing Azure modules.

function Remove-AzureModule {
[CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess)]
param ()

$Modules = Get-Module -ListAvailable Az* `
| Select-Object -unique Name, Version;

$cnt = 1;
ForEach ($Module in $Modules)
{
if ($PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($Module.name, 'Uninstall'))
{
Write-Host "[$cnt] - Removing module: $($Module.Name) - Version: $($Module.Version)." -ForegroundColor Yellow;
Uninstall-Module -Name $Module.Name -AllVersions -Force;
$cnt++;
};
};
};

## - Run using the -What If parameter:
Remove-AzureModule -What If

## - Execute to remove Azure modules:
Remove-AzureModule

The purpose of this function to do a full cleanup removing all installed versions of Azure modules from PowerShell.   This function includes a the “-WhatIf” parameter that can be use to run the function without actually performing the “uninstall” process. And, I added a counter for each module when performing the “uninstall” for each of the dependency module.

Then, you can always use the following “Get-Module” command to verify that all modules has been removed.

Get-Module -Listavailable Az* | Select-Object Name, Version

Azure Docs – Uninstall modules with dependencies

Now, while writing this quick blog post, I found in the Microsoft documentation there’s a “Uninstall the Azure PowerShell Module” section. This article provide the “Uninstall-AllModules” function which is a a generic way to remove any previously installed module with dependencies.

Below, is the modified version of the Microsoft function. I added the code to allow the use of the “-What If” parameter, and to do a count of the modules been removed. I think these are a nice to have changes.

## - Uninstall-AllModules from the Microsoft Docs: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/azure/uninstall-azurerm-ps?view=azurermps-6.12.0#uninstall-from-powershell
## - Modified to include the "-WhatIf" parameter and a module counter.

function Uninstall-AllModules
{
[CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess)]
param (
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[string]
$TargetModule,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
[string]
$Version,
[switch]
$Force
)

$AllModules = @()

'Creating list of dependencies...'
$target = Find-Module $TargetModule -RequiredVersion $version
$target.Dependencies | ForEach-Object {
$AllModules += New-Object -TypeName psobject -Property @{ name = $_.name; version = $_.minimumVersion }
}
$AllModules += New-Object -TypeName psobject -Property @{ name = $TargetModule; version = $Version }

$cnt = 1;
foreach ($module in $AllModules)
{
Write-Host ("[$cnt] - " + 'Uninstalling {0} version {1}' -f $module.name, $module.version);
$cnt++;
try
{
if ($PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($module.name, 'Uninstall'))
{
Uninstall-Module -Name $module.name -RequiredVersion $module.version -Force:$Force -ErrorAction Stop;
};
}
catch
{
Write-Host ("`t" + $_.Exception.Message)
}
}
};

## - Example using -WhatIf parameter:
Uninstall-AllModules -TargetModule Az -Version 0.3.0 -Force -WhatIf

## - Example to remove module with dependencies:
Uninstall-AllModules -TargetModule Az -Version 0.3.0 -Force

Unfortunately, this solution will work as long as all dependencies modules has the same version.  So, a little work still need to be done!

Feel free to test the code in both Windows PowerShell and PowerShell Core.

Another way to Manage PowerShell Modules

Take a look at SAPIEN Technologies new product “Module Manager“. You’ll be surprise what you can find installed in your system. This GUI application let you manage modules installed in your system making it easy to update, disable/enable, and install/uninstall modules.

For more Module Manager Preview information check on the following SAPIEN Technologies link.

Recap

As you can see, PowerShell can provide the means to workaround issues you’ll experience in a simple way. At the same time there are both community and Microsoft documentation available that will provide assistance.

Finally, check out third-party products, like the ones from SAPIEN Technologies that are available to increase your productivity in many ways. For more information check on the following SAPIEN Technologies products link.

PowerShell Core 6.1.0 GA (Generally Available) for Anything Anywhere

Any System, Anywhere

Finally the next PowerShell Core GA (Generally Available) at: PowerShell Core 6.1.0. Thanks to the strong effort of both the Microsoft Team and the PowerShell Community has help reach this milestone achievement with the next generation of PowerShell.

 

Announcing PowerShell Core 6.1

Check Jeffrey Snover (Inventor of PowerShell) at MS Ignite 2018 comments about PowerShell (theCube-video)

PowerShell Core will continue to grow providing new features and performance improvements. This version is fully supported.

Anyone can join and contribute at the Microsoft PowerShell Team – Monthly PowerShell Community Call every third Thursday of the month.

To download and install PowerShell Core, go to their Github Repository.

Install Anywhere

Instructions on how to installed it are also available under Microsoft Documentation for both Windows and non-Window systems: MacOS, Ubuntu, Red Hat, CentOS, Fedora, and others Linux distributions.

For more information about installing PowerShell Core, check it out on Microsoft Doc site

For now, this next generation of PowerShell, Windows PowerShell Snap-ins are no longer supported, and the Out-Gridview cmdlet won’t work.

Reporting Issues

Any PowerShell Core feedback should be submitted to its Github repository. And, any Windows PowerShell issues need to be submitted to the UserVoice forum.

Check the Github PowerShell Core landing page, under the “Windows PowerShell vs PowerShell Core” section.

Modules Availability

Only in Windows Systems, Windows PowerShell modules are also available for PowerShell Core. This means that you can open PowerShell Core console and use the existing Microsoft Windows PowerShell modules.

Now, there’s no excuses for not to try using PowerShell Core in Windows Systems.

In the PowerShell Core console, just execute the following command line to list all modules listed in Windows:

Get-Module -ListAvailable

You’ll notice there’s a new column “PSEdition”, which identifies for which version of PowerShell the module will work:
1. Core – for PowerShell Core any system, any where.
2. Desk – for Windows PowerShell.
3. Core\Desk – for PowerShell Core and Windows.

PowerShell Modules location are listed:

1. Users Modules: C:\Users\max_t\Documents\PowerShell\Modules or C:\Users\max_t\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Modules
2. General Modules for PowerShell Core: C:\Program Files\PowerShell\Modules or C:\program files\powershell\6\Modules
3. General use Modules for Windows PowerShell: C:\WINDOWS\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\Modules

Things are changing quickly in the PowerShell Gallery, which was recently update. Any PowerShell Module author has the responsibility to make the necessary update to their modules. Notice that some PowerShell Core modules are still labeled “Desk” when in fact should be both “Core\Desk”, like the “SQLServer” module.

Just make sure to check the module information for which version of PowerShell the module was created for.

Azure Cloud Shell GA (Generally Available)

Yes! Microsoft Cloud Shell has been updated to have PowerShell Core 6.1.0 GA, and is on Linux.

  

This shows the commitment of having cloud reliable solutions running anywhere on any systems.

  • User either Bash or PowerShell in Linux
  • Drag/Drop files into the Browser session
  • AzureRM Module already installed and updated to latest version
  • AzureRM Modules build on .Net Core

In summary

  • PowerShell Core is the next iteration of PowerShell built using .NET Core
  • Run self-contained, side-by-side in Windows systems with Windows PowerShell
  • Cross-platform availability for managing Anything, Anywhere.
  • Microsoft Open Source and Community-support
  • Azure Cloud support

MS Ignite 2018 – PowerShell Videos

Here’s just a couple of interesting videos from the Microsoft Ignite 2018 event in Orlando about PowerShell Core:

Go ahead and try PowerShell Core 6.1 GA! Embrace the change!

PSCore6 – Creating a Hybrid Cross-platform SQLServer Script

There’s some discussion around scripting on using Windows PowerShell vs PowerShell Core. So, just pick one? No.
Just think about supporting a cross-platform environment. Use both!

Following my recent post on “PSCore6 – SQLServer Module Expanding The Barrier Cross-Platform“, here’s a sample Hybrid-Script for cross-platform use.

Why not!

We all know the next generation (or evolution) of PowerShell is PowerShell Core. That’s it!
You are still using PowerShell, and Windows PowerShell is not going to be dropped nor removed any time soon.

So, why not start working towards, what I call, “Hybrid-scripting”? Powershell Core provides the necessary elements to help with cross-platform scripting.

In it’s basic code form, could look be something like this:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]

## – Logic Structure for executing either PowerShell Version:

## – Use Set-StrictMode for debug purpose:
Set-StrictMode -Version 5.1

If ($PSversionTable.PSEdition -eq "Desktop") {
"Windows PowerShell"
}
else {
## – Use Set-StrictMode for debug purpose:
Set-StrictMode -Version 6.1

if ($PSVersionTable.PSEdition -eq "Core") {
If ($IsWindows) {
"WindowsCore"
}
If ($IsLinux) {
"LinuxCore"
}
If ($isMacOS) {
"MacOSCore"
}
}
};

[/sourcecode]

Now, let’s apply this code to a practical sample.

Sample Hybrid-Script

In the following sample script, includes Help information, begin-process-end and with try-catch code structure.
At the same time, the script will output the exception to the screen console with the failed line.

Script function name: Get-DBASQLInformation

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
Function Get-DBASQLInformation {</pre>
<#
.SYNOPSIS
This is a cross-platform function to Get SQL Server Information.

.DESCRIPTION
This is a cross-platform function to Get SQL Server Information using SQL Authentication.

.PARAMETER UserID
Enter SQL Authentication UserID parameter.

.PARAMETER Password
Enter SQL Authentication Password parameter.

.PARAMETER SQLServerInstance
Enter SQLServerInstance name parameter.

.EXAMPLE
PS> Get-DBASQLInformation -UserID ‘sa’ -Password ‘$SqlPwd01!’ -SQLServerInstance ‘mercury,1433’

.NOTES
===========================================================================
Created with: SAPIEN Technologies, Inc., PowerShell Studio 2018 v5.5.152
Created on: 5/25/2018 8:27 AM
Created by: Maximo Trinidad
Organization: SAPIEN Technologies, Inc.
Filename: Function_Get-DBASQLInformation.ps1
===========================================================================
#>
<pre>[CmdletBinding()]
[OutputType([psobject])]
param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true,
Position = 0)]
[string]
$UserID,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true,
Position = 1)]
[string]
$Password,
[Parameter(Mandatory = $true,
Position = 2)]
[string]
$SQLServerInstance
)

BEGIN {

## – Internal function:
function GetSqlInfo {
param
(
[parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 0)]
[string]
$U,
[parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 1)]
[string]
$P,
[parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 2)]
[string]
$S
)
Try {
## – Prepare connection passing credentials to SQL Server:
$SQLSrvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.SqlConnectionInfo($S, $U, $P);
$SQLSrvObj = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($SQLSrvConn);

## – SMO Get SQL Server Info:
$SQLSrvObj.Information `
| Select-Object parent, platform, product, productlevel, `
OSVersion, Edition, version, HostPlatform, HostDistribution `
| Format-List;

}
catch {
## – Write Exception to Console:
Write-Host `
"Excepion found on line:`r`n$($error[0].InvocationInfo.line)"+ `
"`r`n$($Error[0].Exception)" `
-ForegroundColor Magenta;

}
}

};

PROCESS {

## – Cross-platform logic:
If ($PSversionTable.PSEdition -eq "Desktop") {
Write-Host "Windows PowerShell"
GetSqlInfo -U $UserID -P $Password -S $SQLServerInstance;
}
else {

if ($PSVersionTable.PSEdition -eq "Core") {
If ($IsWindows) {
Write-Host "Windows PScore";
}
If ($IsLinux) {
Write-Host "Linux PSCore";
}
If ($isMacOS) {
Write-Host "MacOS PSCore";
}
## – execute on non-Windows:
GetSqlInfo -U $UserID -P $Password -S $SQLServerInstance;
}
};

};

END {
## – EndBlock (Optional)
};
};

[/sourcecode]

The heart of the code are stored in the “Begin” section as a Internal-Function GetSQLInfo(). The internal-function will be only executed if it the criteria for each of the different platforms. The Try-Catch is just to trap the error if the SMO connection failed, or to indicate the SMO .NET wasn’t loaded.

Go ahead! Create a script file, copy/paste this code, and load this function. Give it a try cross-platforms: Windows, Linux, and MacOS.

Remember, SQLServer module is a replacement for SQLPS module. I won’t recommend having both modules installed unless you use the namespace_module/cmdlet to identify which module is going to execute the cmdlet.

So make sure to always test your scripts.

What’s Next!

This function still need to worked on, but is functional enough to test-drive and see the results. So, it be modified to support Windows Authentication. Once you start scripting and building functions, you won’t stop thinking what else can be added.

Just keep working on it and learning from the PowerShell Community.

Go Bold! Learn PowerShell Core!

PSCore6 – Installing Latest OpenSSH-Win64 v1.0.0.0beta

This next version of OpenSSH bring more changes and here’s how to configured it.
So, let’s refresh the installation steps so we can remote connect from Windows to Windows, or any other non-Windows Systems using ssh protocol.

For now, this applies to Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.16299.248].

Where To Get It

Use Chocolatey package manager for Windows to install OpenSSH-Win64. On a new windows system, it will need to be install. Make sure to open PSCore6 console “Run as administrator“.

Then, in PowerShell, execute the following command to install Chocolatey Package Manager for Windows:

[Sourcecode language=”powershell”]
Set-ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Scope Process -Force; iex ((New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString(‘https://chocolatey.org/install.ps1’))
[/Sourcecode]

When the installation is completed, make sure to exit and open again a PSCore6 console “Run as administrator

Next, check what OpenSSH version is available by execute the following command in PowerShell:

[Sourcecode language=”powershell”]
choco info openssh
[/Sourcecode]

The result on screen will provide with the latest version available with the release notes for this package. One of the fixes, clears the issue with setting the ssh services permission it is set back to “Local System“.

Installing OpenSSH from Chocolatey

After verifying and reading the release notes, continue with installing the package. The following command will install OpenSSH-Win64 on the new system.

[Sourcecode language=”powershell”]
choco install openssh
[/Sourcecode]

Now that we got the module installed, we need to make some configuration changes before installing the ssh services.

Check Configuration settings

On this latest OpenSSH version 1.0.0.0beta there has been changes to the configuration file. There are two configuration files available:

1. sshd_config-default – located on: “C:\Program Files\OpenSSH-Win64“.

The second configuration file will be available after complete the script ssh installation:

2. sshd_config – located on: “C:\ProgramData\ssh”

3. Also, all security key files are copied over from the “C:\Program Files\OpenSH-Win64” folder into the “C:\ProgramData\ssh“.

Remember, before the ssh services installation, the folder “C:\ProgramData\ssh” doesn’t exist.

Remember that any changes to the sshd_config file will requires both ssh services to be restarted.

Steps for Installing SSH Services

So, before executing the “Install-sshd.ps1” script. I’ll make the needed changes are in place in the sshd_config_default file using Notepad:

1. Enable: Port 22
2. Enable: PubkeyAuthentication yes
3. Enable: PasswordAuthentication yes
4. Add PSCore6 Subsystems:

[sourcecode language=”text”]
Subsystem powershell C:\Program Files\PowerShell\6.0.1\pwsh.exe -sshs -NoLogo -NoProfile

[/sourcecode]

Also, if it doesn’t already exist, add the Firewall Rule for Port 22:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name=SSHPort22 dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=22

[/sourcecode]

Now, we can proceed with the installation of the SSH Services. And, this installation will include the SSH-Agent Service.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Install both ssh services: sshd and ssh-agent:
.\install-sshd.ps1 /SSHAgentFeature

[/sourcecode]

Both the ssh and the ssh-agent service are installed but remains stopped.

The installation also created a ssh folder under “C:\ProgramData” and the sshd_config file with the change we did previously to the sshd_config_default file.

Now, to complete the OpenSSH setup, we execute the following commands:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Generate SSH keys:
./ssh-keygen -A

## – Execute both fix permissions scripts:
.\FixHostFilePermissions.ps1 -confirm:$false
.\FixUserFilePermissions.ps1

[/sourcecode]

Notice, now we got the folder “C:\ProgramData\ssh” populated with all the ssh keys need for connectivity.

We are ready to work with the installed SSH Services.

Starting SSH Services

Here are some final adjustments to make sure both SSH Services will start automaticaly after the system reboots.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Set from the Service Startup from “Manual” to “Automatic”:
Set-Service sshd -StartupType Automatic
Set-Service ssh-agent -StartupType Automatic

## – Start the SSH services:
Start-Service sshd
Start-Service ssh-agent

[/sourcecode]

Finally, we are ready to test SSH connection to another system.

Testing OpenSSH Connectivity

The installation is complete and both SSH Services are running. In order to test, we open PSCore6 console and use the “Enter-PSSession” command to connect to a Linux system or Windows system using SSH protocol.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Connecting to Windows:
Enter-PSSession -HostName sapien01 -UserName max_t

## – Connecting to Windows:
Enter-PSSession -HostName mars -UserName maxt

[/sourcecode]

Now, we are successfully connected to another system using OpenSSH.

Word Of Caution!

All Windows System need to have the same version of OpenSSH in order to connect via ssh protocol, or the connection will failed with the following error message: “Enter-PSSession : The background process reported an error with the following message: The SSH client session has ended with error message: Connection reset by 192.168.164.128 port 22.”

Be Bold!! Learn PowerShell Core!!

PowerShell Get-AzureRMNetworkInterface Customize View

This is an example that can be use in both Windows PowerShell and PowerShell Core to customize the result information from the “Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface” cmdlet. Showing the importance of using the Script-block Expression in the Select-Object statement when querying PowerShell .Net Object.

Executing Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface

After successfully signing on the Azure from, in this case my Windows 10 Ubuntu PowerShell Core prompt, executing the “Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface” command will return lots of information:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface

[/sourcecode]

Now, to document this information in a proper format, a custom script need to be created.

Thought Process

First identifying which properties are going to be displayed. Let’s pick the following:
1. AdapterName
2. Virtual Machine name
3. Private IPAdress
4. Private IP Allocation Method
5. MAC Address

Now, looking at the previous results of the command, lets look at the ‘VirtualMachine‘ property:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
(Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface).VirtualMachine.Id

[/sourcecode]

This will display all Virtual Machine network interface in your subscription. But, I’m just interested in getting the Virtual Machine name.

Notice the common separator is the forward-slash ‘/’. We can use the .NET split() method to extract the *Virtual Machine name value.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
(Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface).VirtualMachine.Id.split(‘/’)

[/sourcecode]

*Note: Notice the use of single-quote forward-slash

This way we can list all the separate values belonging to the “*.Id” property.
So, in order to access the Virtual Machine name, we count the listed values from 0 thru 7. We found the name is on #6, then use the number to extract the value.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
(Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface).VirtualMachine.Id.split(‘/’)[7]

[/sourcecode]

How About The Ip Configutation section?

in the case of extracting information from the “IpConfiguration” property, we can execute the following line to list all available properties and its values:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
(Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface).IpConfigurations

[/sourcecode]

This makes it much easier to extract information by just pick and chose properties.

Custom script code

Now that we know how to extract value, the block of code would look like:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Get VM Physical Machines IPAddress:
$IpConfig = `
Get-AzureRmNetworkInterface `
| Select-Object @{ label = "AdapterName"; Expression = { $_.Name } },
@{ label = "VMname"; Expression = { $_.VirtualMachine.Id.Split(‘/’)[8] } },
@{ label = "PrivateIpAddress"; Expression = { $_.IpConfigurations.PrivateIpAddress } },
@{ label = "PrivateIpAllocMethod"; Expression = { $_.IpConfigurations.PrivateIpAllocationMethod } },
MacAddress;

$IpConfig | Format-Table -AutoSize;

[/sourcecode]

In the above sample code, the results are saved into a PowerShell variable for better output formatting.

Conclusion

Although I’m only showing extracting information from the Get-AzureRMNetworkInterface command, this can apply to any PowerShell cmdlet that provide such complex properties values. This can apply to both Windows PowerShell and PowerShell Core.

Be Bold!! Learn PowerShell Core!!

SSMS Version 17.4 no more SQLPS Module

It was just a matter of time, as it was already mention in previous SSMS (SQL Server Management Studio) documentation that SQLPS module was going to be deprecated and replace with the new SQLServer module.

See SSMS download information at: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/ssms/download-sql-server-management-studio-ssms

After SSMS Version 17.4 was release back in December, SQLPS module is no longer available. So, if you try to use the “Start PowerShell” from any of the database object, you’ll get the message “No SQL Server cmdlets found…” popup message.

New SQLServer PowerShell Module

But, no worries! Both the SSMS link and the popup message tell you where to get the new *SQLServer PowerShell module as is a separate installation from the PowerShell Gallery.

PowerShell Gallery SQLServer PowerShell Module, Get here: https://www.powershellgallery.com/packages/SqlServer/21.0.17199

One thing to point out, this module is only meant to be use on Windows PowerShell.

In other words, it will not work in PSCore6.

Housekeeping Needed

Now, there’s the chance previous SSMS installations have left the older SQLPS PowerShell Module in the system.

As is shown in the previous image, the variable $env:PSModulePath contains the path to the existing SQLPS module(s).

Either, remove the path manually using PowerShell, or thru the GUI System “Environment Variable“.

Or better yet, if you’re using SAPIEN Technologies, Inc. “PowerShell Studioproduct, the n use the Cache Editor feature to manage your existing PowerShell Modules. Check out the blog post and video about this feature at:
https://www.sapien.com/blog/2017/12/07/powershell-studio-feature-nugget-refreshing-local-cache-powershell-cmdlets-and-modules/

Video featuring PowerShell Studio Cache Editor

Option for PSCore

The only way to use PSCore6 to work with SQLServer cross-platform, is using the SMO (SQLServer Management Objects) for .NETCore, which is available in NuGet. For more information in how to install it, check my blog post at:
http://www.maxtblog.com/2017/11/streamlining-sql-server-management-objects-smo-in-powershell-core/

The only downside, you need to create the script from scratch. There’s plenty of documentation about SMO to overcome this hurdle. Most important, you are  sharpen your PowerShell scripting skills.

Don’t forget that before install any artifacts from PowerShell Gallery, NuGet, or Chocolatey the console shell need to be open “as an Administrator“.

Be Bold!! Learn PowerShell Core!!

PSCore6 – Version 6.0.1 is out of the oven!

Yes! Go and get while it still hot.  The Microsoft PowerShell Team is making it happen and they are not stopping.

Need to know more about the PSCore Roadmap, the check this link: https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/powershell/2018/01/24/powershell-core-6-1-roadmap/

Keep mind, that it always take few hour for some of the links to be update.  So, the quick way to download the latest version is to go directly to the “Release“page: https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases

Then, select the OS version for PSCore.

While we await for Ubuntu (or other) Repositories gets the latest update, you can use the debian installation format after downloading the file :

sudo dpkg -i *.deb 

Don’t forget to always update the help documentation using “Update-Help -force” with Administrator privileges.

Also, notice that previously installed PowerShellGalley Modules remains installed.

Be Bold!! Learn PowerShell Core!!

 

PSCore6 – Nuget Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects latest Package (v140.17218.0) Broken

This is the SMO (SqlServer Management Objects) package use to create PSCore6 scripts to connect and manage SQL Server on Windows, Linux, and Azure.

But today, I found out the latest version “140.17218.0″ is broken. I had to rolled back to use an older version “140.17199.0” to get it to work again.

You can find the information about this package in this link:
https://www.nuget.org/packages/Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects

This NuGet SMO package version is built on .NETCore 2.0 for PSCore6, and will not install in Windows PowerShell.

Installing SMO Package

To *install the previous SMO package version “140.17199.0“, use the following command:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
Install-Package Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects -RequiredVersion ‘140.17199.0’

[/sourcecode]

*Note: Need to install as an Administrator.

If  the newer SMO version “140.17218.0” is installed then it will not connect. There are no errors, or failures displayed.  (See image)

This issue has been reported to NuGet SMO owners and hopefully will be resolved soon.

Testing SMO in PSCore6

Here’s the PSCore6 script for SMO testing. The script will work in both Windows and Linux.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Help find and save the location of the SMO dll’s in a PowerShell variable:
$smopath = `
Join-Path ((Get-Package Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects).Source `
| Split-Path) (Join-Path lib netcoreapp2.0)

# Add types to load SMO Assemblies only:
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.Smo.dll)
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.ConnectionInfo.dll)

## – Prepare connection and credential strings for SQL Server:
## – (Connection to Windows SQL Server multi-instance sample)
$SQLServerInstanceName = ‘System01,1451’; $SQLUserName = ‘sa’; $sqlPwd = ‘$Mypwd01!’;

## – Turn ON below for Linux:
## – (Connection to Linux SQL Server multi-instance sample)
# $SQLServerInstanceName = ‘LinuxSystem02’; $SQLUserName = ‘sa’; $sqlPwd = ‘$Mypwd01!’;

## – Prepare connection passing credentials to SQL Server:
$SQLSrvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.SqlConnectionInfo($SQLServerInstanceName, $SQLUserName, $SqlPwd);
$SQLSrvObj = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($SQLSrvConn);

## – SMO Get SQL Server Info:
$SQLSrvObj.Information `
| Select-Object parent, platform, product, productlevel, `
OSVersion, Edition, version, HostPlatform, HostDistribution `
| Format-List;

## – End of Code

[/sourcecode]

Most Important

In order for this to work, NuGet needs to be installed first. The following *code block will help to check if it’s already installed. And, if not, then it will install NuGet in PSCore6.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
# Register NuGet package source, if needed
# The package source may not be available on some systems (e.g. Linux)
if (-not (Get-PackageSource | Where-Object{$_.Name -eq ‘Nuget’}))
{
Register-PackageSource -Name Nuget -ProviderName NuGet -Location https://www.nuget.org/api/v2
}else{
Write-Host "NuGet Already Exist! No Need to install."
}

[/sourcecode]

*Note: Thanks to the SMO guys for providing this code block to get me started testing.

Also, if you already installed the buggy NuGet SMO version, remember to use the following command to uninstall the package:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
uninstall-package Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects

[/sourcecode]

I’m hoping this blog post will help in any way.

Be Bold!! Learn PowerShell Core!!

PowerShell Core–Updated setup OpenSSH in Windows and Linux

It’s been over a year since my last post on “PowerShell Open Source – Windows PSRemoting to Linux with OpenSSH”. A lot has change, so here’s the updated version.

Linux OpenSSH installation

In Linux (Ubuntu), open a terminal (Bash) session.

Install the following *packages:

sudo apt install openssh-server
sudo apt install openssh-client

*Note: The system will let you know if they already exist.

Need to configure the OpenSSH config file:

sudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

The, add following line in the “subsystem” area:

Subsystem powershell pwsh.exe -sshs -NoLogo -NoProfile

Proceed to save the file.

Now, execute the following lines:

sudo ssh-keygen –A

Restart the ‘ssh’ service by executing the following command:

sudo service ssh restart

Windows OpenSSH installation

In *Windows Client or Server, open Services to ‘Stop‘/’Disable‘ both SSH Broker and SSH Proxy.

*Note: Latest Windows Insider Builds having the following services previously installed: SSH Broker and SSH Proxy

Open PowerShell Core Console (Run as Administrator):

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
pwsh

[/sourcecode]

First thing, make sure Chocolatey is installed in PowerShell Core: https://chocolatey.org/install

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
iex ((New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString(‘https://chocolatey.org/install.ps1’)

[/sourcecode]

*note: Chocolatey Install instructions will run ‘Set-ExecutionPolity Bypass’. The problem is, it won’t change it back to the previous setting.
Make sure to run “Get-ExecutionPolicy” to verify current settings.

Installing OpenSSH package from Chocolatey:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
choco install openssh

[/sourcecode]

Close/Reopen PowerShell Core (Run as Administrator), and execute the following command:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
refreshenv

[/sourcecode]

Change Directory to the OpenSSH folder:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
cd ‘C:\Program Files\OpenSSH-Win64\’

[/sourcecode]

Now, we need to make changes to the sshd_config file with Notepad:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
Notepad sshd_config

[/sourcecode]

Need to enabled the following commented out lines:

[sourcecode language=”text”]
Port 22
PasswordAuthentication yes
PubkeyAuthentication yes

[/sourcecode]

Finally, add the subsystem line to include PowerShell Core path:

[sourcecode language=”text”]
Subsystem     powershell    C:/Program Files/PowerShell/6.0.0-rc.2/pwsh.exe -sshs -NoLogo –NoProfile

[/sourcecode]

Save the file and we are ready to configure the firewall rule for port 22.

Windows Firewall Port 22 Setup

Next, confirm that there are no other TCP ports using port 22:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
netstat -anop TCP

[/sourcecode]

Now, add the SSH firewall rule for using port 22:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name=SSHPort22 dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=22

[/sourcecode]

Open Firewall app and verify it’s added.

Completing Windows OpenSSH Installation

The following steps are essential for the sshd service to start without any issues. Make sure to be at the OpenSSH folder:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Generate SSH keys:
ssh-keygen -A

## – Execute both fix permissions scripts:
.\FixHostFilePermissions.ps1 -confirm:$false
.\FixUserFilePermissions.ps1

## – Install both ssh services: sshd and ssh-agent:
.\install-sshd.ps1

[/sourcecode]

Then, set both sshd and ssh-agent services set to start automatically.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
Set-Service sshd -StartupType Automatic
Set-Service ssh-agent -StartupType Automatic

[/sourcecode]

At this point, only start service sshd which will turned on the ssh-agent service.

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
Start-Service sshd
#Start-Service ssh-agent (optional)

[/sourcecode]

Must important, open the *Services MMC console and verify that all running.

*Note: On the server will be needed to set the credential as Local System (see below).

Now, proceed to test connectivity between two system using PowerShell Core.  To test connectivity could use the following command:

Enter-PSSession -hostname systemname -username UsenameHere

Additional Note:

I found an issue when been a member of a domain but the Domain is Off. Trying to restart ssh service, I get the following error:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
PS C:\Program Files\OpenSSH-Win64&gt; Start-Service sshd
Start-Service : Failed to start service ‘sshd (sshd)’.
At line:1 char:1
+ Start-Service sshd
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ CategoryInfo          : OpenError: (System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController:ServiceController) [Start-Service], ServiceCommandException
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : StartServiceFailed,Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.StartServiceCommand

[/sourcecode]

Or trying to manually start the “sshd” service using the Services MMC:

This error was due to missing a step in the installation:

Resolution: Thanks to Github Win32-OpenSSH @bagajjal provided the following steps:

[sourcecode language=”powershell”]
## – Fixing sshd service not starting with the NET Service credentials:
.\FixHostFilePermissions.ps1 -Confirm:$false
.\uninstall-sshd.ps1
.\install-sshd.ps1
[/sourcecode]

This resolved the sshd start failure. (see below)